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• Hepatocellular carcinoma
• Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (mNET)
• Metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma (mCRC)
Other liver metastases
• Breast cancer
• Renal cell carcinoma
• ECOG Performance Status Scale > 2
• Poor baseline liver function/decompensated cirrhosis
• Child-Pugh Class C
• Extensive tumor with massive replacement throughout liver
• Portal vein occlusion
• Arteriovenous fistula not amenable to treatment
• Extensive extrahepatic metastasis
• ECOG Performance Status
• Prior surgeries or liver directed therapies
• Biliary-enteric anastomosis - pre and post operative antibiotic regimen recommended
Prior imaging - CT/MRI
• Tumor Markers: AFP, CEA
Antibiotics: many regimens that cover skin flora and gram negative enterics
• Ceftriaxone 1g
• Ampicillin/sulbactam (Unasyn) 1.5g
• Vancomycin (15mg/kg) and Gentamicin (5mg/kg) for penicillin allergy
• Multiple regimens for patients without intact sphincter of Oddi - moxifloxacin PO 400 mg Qday x 20 days. Begin regimen 3 days before procedure.
• Zofran 8-16 mg IV
• Scopolamine patch 1.5 mg
• Dexamethasone 10 mg IV
Transfemoral vs transradial access - place 5 or 6-Fr sheath
Catheterize SMA and perform DSA
• evaluate for replaced or parasitized vasculature
• option to carry run out to portal phase to document patency of portal vasculature
Catheterize celiac and perform DSA to define anatomy
Catheterize common hepatic, proper hepatic and right/left hepatic arteries as needed
• evaluate for all potential feeding vessels to tumor
• evaluate for potential non-target embolization
Cone-beam CT optional: helpful to perform from more proximal location to identify all feeder vessels to the tumor
Embolize from most selective position as possible and embolize all feeding vessels
• Minimizes collateral damage to non-involved liver
• Ensure that all portions of the liver tumor are being treated
• Appropriate collimation during embolic administration to watch for reflux and non-target embolization
Cone-beam CT optional: helpful to identify potential sites of untreated tumor
cTACE with Lipiodol
DEB-TACE: many options
• Oncozene 100 μm loaded with 50-75 mg Doxorubicin
• Consider irinotecan with DEBs for mCRC
• Near stasis - contrast clears within 2-5 heartbeats.
• Pruned tree appearance
If endpoint not reached with amount of drug-eluted beads.
• Options to further embolize during same session with conventional microspheres or gelfoam
• Repeat DEB-TACE during second treatment session
• Overnight admission vs. same-day discharge
• IV hydration
• Pain control: dilaudid 0.4 mg IV Q2 until tolerating PO
• Can continue antibiotics until discharge: Ancef 1 mg IV Q8 and Flagyl 500 mg IV Q12
• Monitor closely for fever, chills, worsening pain or jaundice.
• Repeat labs in 3 weeks
• Re-image in 4 weeks
• IR clinic visit after imaging and labs
• Subsequent cross sectional imaging Q3 months for first 2 years, then 6 months thereafter
• Response assessment by modified RECIST
• If undergoing 2nd treatment, retreat 4-8 weeks after first chemoembolization
Post embolization syndrome - most common
• Symptoms: fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, leukocytosis and elevated LFTs
• Lysed tumor cells release toxins into systemic circulation
• Typically self-limiting within 3 days
Liver failure - higher risk with more advanced cirrhosis and more extensive treatment area
• 10-14 days after procedure
• Associated pain, fever and leukocytosis
• Pitfall: treated tumors can have intra-lesional gas related to embolization
• Treatment should include percutaneous drainage if size permits and broad spectrum antibiotics
• Consider ceftriaxone and vancomycin
• Tailor antibiotic coverage based on sensitivities
Cholecystitis related to non-target embolization
• Can be managed conservatively. Occasionally cholecystostomy tube or cholecystectomy required
• Consider ciprofloxacin and flagyl for antibiotic regimen
 Llovet JM, Real MI, Montaña X, et al. Arterial embolisation or chemoembolisation versus symptomatic treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9319):1734-9.
 Lo CM, Ngan H, Tso WK, et al. Randomized controlled trial of transarterial lipiodol chemoembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2002;35(5):1164-71.
 Georgiades C, Geschwind JF, Harrison N, et al. Lack of response after initial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: does it predict failure of subsequent treatment?. Radiology. 2012;265(1):115-23.
 Prajapati HJ, Xing M, Spivey JR, et al. Survival, efficacy, and safety of small versus large doxorubicin drug-eluting beads TACE chemoembolization in patients with unresectable HCC. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203(6):W706-14.
 Poliektov N, Johnson DT. Treatment of Liver Tumors with Transarterial Chemoembolization. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2018;35(4):350-355.
 Chehab MA, Thakor AS, Tulin-Silver S, et al. Adult and Pediatric Antibiotic Prophylaxis during Vascular and IR Procedures: A Society of Interventional Radiology Practice Parameter Update Endorsed by the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe and the Canadian Association for Interventional Radiology. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018;29(11):1483-1501.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2018.06.007
 Dinorcia J, Florman SS, Haydel B, et al. Pathologic Response to Pretransplant Locoregional Therapy is Predictive of Patient Outcome After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Analysis From the US Multicenter HCC Transplant Consortium. Ann Surg. 2020;271(4):616-624.