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• Severe obesity
• Hepatic peliosis
• Need for portal pressure measurements
• Few if any
• Occluded SVC and/or internal jugular veins
• Contrast allergy or renal insufficiency can be treated with CO2 angiography
• Indication for procedure and if portal pressures are needed
• History of prior liver resection or surgery
Prior imaging - US/CT/MRI
• Right hepatic patency and orientation relative to IVC and liver on prior imaging
• Presence of hepatic malignancy or cysts
• Not necessary before biopsy
• Access right internal jugular vein
• Place 0.035" wire into IVC
• 9-Fr sheath into right atrium
• Take right atrial pressure
• Catheterize right hepatic vein (RHV)
• Venogram in RHV
• Take free hepatic pressure
• Advance MPA into wedged position
• Take wedged hepatic pressure
• Advance stiff wire into distal RHV
• 7-Fr catheter with 5-Fr catheter loaded advanced over the wire in the RHV
• Remove wire and 5-Fr catheter
• Biopsy device through 7-Fr sheath and take 3 cores
• Remove 7-Fr sheath and hold pressure
• Right internal jugular vein most common
• Occasionally will have to access external jugular vein, left IJ or a femoral vein
Place 9 Fr sheath
• 23 cm or 35 cm length helpful. 9-Fr sheath can be advanced into RHV
• Consider BRITE TIP (Cordis) sheath
• Multipurpose catheter (MPA) commonly used
• Probe catheter along the right lateral and posterolateral IVC wall to enter right hepatic vein.
• If unsure on AP view whether catheter is in middle vs right hepatic vein, can check catheter location with lateral fluoroscopy
• Ok to biopsy from middle hepatic vein (MHV). Consider posterior direction for biopsy
• Many options will work
• Amplatz Super Stiff (Boston Scientific) with J tip
• 7-Fr sheath need constant downward pressure while in the RHV. Sheath has tendency to back out into IVC due to respiratory motion.
• Advance needle gently, under direct fluoroscopic observation down into the RHV.
• Direct needle anteriorly and obtain a specimen.
• Obtain 2-3 specimens. Specimens are placed in formalin.
• Obtain right atrial pressure, free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP) and wedged hepatic venous pressures (WHVP) - use mean measurements
• Wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHVP) should be taken with saline, not contrast in catheter
• Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG): Difference between WHVP and FHVP
• Good article: Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient Measurement: Time to Learn!
• Observe patient for 3-6 hours
• Vital signs at least Q30 minutes
• Failure to obtain diagnostic specimen
• Cardiac arrhythmia due to prolapse of needle into right atrium
• Bile duct or gallbladder injury
• Hepatic artery injury by needle - may present with hemobilia and melena.
• Liver capsule puncture and hemoperitoneum
• Mortality between 0-0.5%
 Sue MJ, Lee EW, Saab S, et al. Transjugular Liver Biopsy: Safe Even in Patients With Severe Coagulopathies and Multiple Biopsies. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2019;10(7):e00063. doi:10.14309/ctg.0000000000000063
 Dohan A, Guerrache Y, Boudiaf M, Gavini JP, Kaci R, Soyer P. Transjugular liver biopsy: indications, technique and results. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2014;95(1):11‐15. doi:10.1016/j.diii.2013.08.009
 Behrens G, Ferral H. Transjugular liver biopsy. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2012;29(2):111‐117. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1312572
 Behrens G, Ferral H, Giusto D, Patel J, Van Thiel DH. Transjugular liver biopsy: comparison of sample adequacy with the use of two automated needle systems. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011;22(3):341‐345. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2010.10.012
 Keshava SN, Mammen T, Surendrababu N, Moses V. Transjugular liver biopsy: What to do and what not to do. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2008;18(3):245‐248. doi:10.4103/0971-3026.41839
 Kumar A, Sharma P, Sarin SK. Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement: time to learn!. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2008;27(2):74‐80.