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Prostate Artery Embolization
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• Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)
• Intractable hematuria
Treat patients with moderate to severe LUTS
Patients who have failed or cannot tolerate conservative medical management
• Retrograde ejaculation
• Decreased sexual drive
• Patients often concerned about potential morbidity or complications
• Contraindication to surgery related to patient comorbidities
Prostate size > 40
• Many agree with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) < 8, PAE not indicated
• Quality of Life (QoL)
• IPSS a a good survey for assessing LUTS
• Specialized test to assess detruser strength
• Can discern between neurogenic bladder and bladder outlet obstruction
• Neurogenic bladder can be seen in spinal cord injury, MS, diabetics.
• Qmax: > 10 mL/s unlikely to benefit from PAE
• If Qmax > 10 mL/s, consider other causes of LUTS
Labs: PSA, BMP and urinalysis
• Ultrasound: can evaluate prostate size and evaluate bladder for post void residual (PVR) volume.
• CTA or MRA: can estimate prostate size and potentially evaluate prostate arteries
• MR: can evaluate prostate size and underlying neoplasm. Can compare pre MRI with post MRI to assess change in volume and enhancement
• Recommend consistent preprocedural workup for patients
• Use IPSS
• Need basic understanding of uroflowmetry and post void residual volume
• Need algorithm for prostate cancer evaluation
• Preprocedural imaging can range from basic to complex
• LUTS are not always secondary to BPH
Prostate Artery Embolization Podcasts
Listen to leading physicians discuss prostate artery embolization on the BackTable VI Podcast. Get tips, tricks, and expert guidance from your peers and level up your practice.
In this episode of BackTable, host Dr. Michael Barraza is joined by Dr. Nainesh Parikh from Moffitt Cancer Center. Dr. Parikh has worked extensively on prostate artery embolizations (PAE), having performed around 250 PAEs since joining Moffitt in 2017. The conversation delves into the multifaceted applications of PAE, with a specific focus on its role in prostate cancer.
In this episode, host Dr. Aaron Fritts interviews Dr. Aaron Kovaleski on good old-fashioned TV and radio marketing. Aaron is an interventional radiologist and founder of Endovascular Consultants of Colorado, who has found success in using tried and true methods of advertising to grow his practice.
En los confines de la medicina, a veces es necesario un espíritu intrépido para desafiar las prácticas establecidas y abrir nuevos horizontes. El reconocido doctor Francisco Carnevale, una figura emblemática en el campo de la radiologia intervencionista, personifica a la perfección esta audacia. Su historia es la epopeya de un hombre que tuvo la inquietud de explorar la embolización de la próstata, un enfoque innovador en el tratamiento de la hiperplasia prostática.
Urologist Dr. Claus Roehrborn and Interventional Radiologist Dr. Sandeep Bagla discuss the pros and cons of Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) compared to other Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatments (MISTS) for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). They also discuss the importance of a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach when offering these treatment options, including agreeing on the best treatment for the patient.
Interventional Radiologist Ari Isaacson and Urologist Matt Raynor at UNC Health tell the story of how they successfully built a collaborative PAE program for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including the challenges they faced along the way, and tips for success in working together.
• 400 mg Ciprofloxacin IV preprocedure
• Continue 500 mg Ciprofloxacin PO BID x 5-7 days following procedure
Sedation: ranges from local to MAC
Foley helpful especially when starting out, but try to avoid as comfort level and experience increase
BB marker on base of penis also helpful when starting out
Procedure in Summary
• Access: radial vs femoral
• Catheterize left internal iliac artery (IIA)
• DSA: 45° ipsilateral oblique
• 2.1 or 2.4-Fr microcatheter for prostate artery
• Confirm placement with DSA
• Confirm placement and potential non-target embolization with cone-beam
• 100 mcg nitroglycerine into prostate artery before embolization
• Many choices for embolics. Sizes range from 100-500 μm
• Endpoint: stasis or near stasis
• Repeat for contralateral prostate artery
• Good vector to catheterize the internal iliac arteries
• May have challenges for cone-beam CT
Femoral - sometimes bilateral access needed
• Depends on tortuosity
• Can start with basic C2 catheter if using femoral approach
For femoral access and ipsilateral IIA
• Can pull reverse curve catheter like Sos into the IIA
• Waltman loop or RUC helpful to access anterior division of IIA
Identify Prostate Artery
Consider cone beam CT at beginning of procedure with flush catheter in aorta
• Gives nice overview of anatomy
• Can observe anatomic variants
• Can be helpful when choosing an obliquity for IIA DSA to identify origin of prostate artery
• Potential cone beam protocol: 6 mL/s for 42 mL (allows for 2 seconds to fill artery and a 5 second spin)
• Dilute contrast: 1:1 ratio of contrast to saline
DSA in IIA
• Helpful to access anterior division of IIA
• 45° ipsilateral oblique
• Prostate artery crosses main trunk of obturator artery (if present) > 95% of time
• Obturator easy to identify with distal fork
• Recommend looking at lots of angiograms prior to first case
• Understanding branches of IIA will help identify prostate artery
Catheterize Prostate Artery
• Many different techniques and tools
• Average diameter 1.6 mm
• Artery prone to spasm
• Recommend starting with 2.1-Fr microcatheter
• Preshaped microcatheters can be helpful
• Shapeable microwire usually fine
• 0.016" double angle Glidewire GT (Terumo) helpful
Confirm placement and evaluate for non-target embolization with cone-beam CT
• Many protocols
• Consider 0.5 mL/sec for 8 mL with 8 second delay (will obtain arterial information and parenchymal filling)
Potential Non-Target Embolization
• Often easiest maneuver is to advance microcatheter distal to potential non-target branch
• Embolize with non-target vessel with Gelfoam or coils
• Larger particles (300-500 μm) may reduce chance of end tissue necrosis
Prostate Artery Embolization Articles
Read our exclusive BackTable VI Articles for quick insights on prostate artery embolization, provided by physicians for physicians.
Variety in prostatic artery embolization (PAE) procedure techniques, such as catheter choice, endpoints, particle sizes, and use of coils or liquids can lead to inconsistent procedure outcomes. Interventional radiologist Dr. Sam Mouli explains his techniques and recommendations to better standardize prostatic artery embolization in practice.
The rapid evolution of the PAE procedure has led to the utilization of various pre-procedural practices. Questionnaires, Uroflow, CT, MRI, and cone beam CT have been used, among other tools, to work up patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and plan treatment. Learn more about PAE procedure workup.
The consequences of nontarget embolization can deter interventional radiologists and patients from following through with a prostatic artery embolization (PAE) procedure. PAE experts Dr. Sandeep Bagla and Dr. Ari Isaacson discuss their PAE technique, why it's effective, and how it helps them minimize nontarget embolization.
Non-target embolization: rectum, bladder and penis
• Up to 8%
• More likely with larger volume prostates
• Treated with 1-2 weeks of indwelling Foley catheter
• Some operators will tell patients with > 150 g prostates to expect to go home with Foley
• Can be discharged day of procedure
• 1-3 hour recovery time
• Discharge pain regimen to include anti-inflammatory, opioids for break through pain, antiemetics
• 1, 3, 6 and 12 month visits
• IPSS at each visit
• Similar to UFE, maximal benefit between 3-6 months
• Post procedure imaging and urodynamics usually reserved for troubleshooting
Outcomes at 12 Months
• IPSS improved by 20 points
• QoL improved by 2.5 points
• PVR decreased by 86 mL
After 2 years, IPSS, Qol and urinary flow similar. TURP better at reducing prostate size
Prostate Artery Embolization Tools
Check out prostate artery embolization apps, calculators, and decision aids to assist you in your day to day practice.
 Moradzadeh N, Ranade A, McWilliams J. Angiographic features to aid identification of the prostatic artery during prostatic arterial embolization [abstract]. In J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2019;30(3):Supplement, Page S59. Abstract No.126.
 Bagla S, Isaacson AJ. Tips and Tricks for Difficult Prostatic Artery Embolization. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2016;33(3):236‐239. doi:10.1055/s-0036-1586145
 Carnevale FC, Iscaife A, Yoshinaga EM, Moreira AM, Antunes AA, Srougi M. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) Versus Original and PErFecTED Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Preliminary Results of a Single Center, Prospective, Urodynamic-Controlled Analysis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2016;39(1):44‐52. doi:10.1007/s00270-015-1202-4
 Uflacker A, Haskal ZJ, Bilhim T, Patrie J, Huber T, Pisco JM. Meta-Analysis of Prostatic Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2016;27(11):1686‐1697.e8. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2016.08.004
 Gao YA, Huang Y, Zhang R, et al. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: prostatic arterial embolization versus transurethral resection of the prostate--a prospective, randomized, and controlled clinical trial. Radiology. 2014;270(3):920‐928. doi:10.1148/radiol.13122803
 Martins Pisco J, Pereira J, Rio Tinto H, Fernandes L, Bilhim T. How to perform prostatic arterial embolization. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012;15(4):286‐289. doi:10.1053/j.tvir.2012.09.002
 BackTable, LLC (Producer). (2017, November 27). Ep 17 – Prostate Artery Embolizations [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://www.backtable.com/shows/vi
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