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BackTable / Urology / Topic / Condition


Cystitis is an infection of the lower urinary tract, also known as a urinary tract infection (UTI). Cystitis can be simple, in healthy men or non-pregnant women, or complicated, in people with risk factors, such as spermicide use, a new sexual partner, a previous UTI, or family history of UTI. Bacteria that cause acute cystitis include Escherichia coli, which is the most common etiologic agent, as well as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Cystitis is more common in women, with about a 12% annual incidence whereas men report less than 10 cases per 10,000 men. Despite the difference in incidence rates, both men and women experiencing simple cystitis present with the same symptoms of dysuria, urinary frequency, and urgency. Risk factors for cystitis include sexual intercourse, new sexual partner, previous UTI, nephrolithiasis, and an immunocompromised status.

Cystitis Condition Overview

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Ep 144 Recurrent UTIs: Controlling Those Nasty Little Bladder Infections with Dr. Anne Cameron
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Cystitis Diagnosis

Urinalysis and urine culture must be done to diagnose cystitis and develop a treatment plan. Laboratory evidence of pyuria and symptoms consistent with a lower urinary tract infection indicate acute cystitis. Patients with pyelonephritis or vaginitis should have a physical examination before a diagnosis is made, and men with recurring cystitis should be evaluated for prostatitis. Urine dipsticks may be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of leukocyte esterase. In cases of complicated cystitis and a lack of response to antibiotic treatment, physicians may use computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, or cystoscopy to detect abnormal processes interfering with treatment.

Cystitis Podcasts

Listen to leading physicians discuss cystitis on the BackTable Urology Podcast. Get tips, tricks, and expert guidance from your peers and level up your practice.

Episode #144


In this crossover episode of BackTable OBGYN with Urology, Dr. Suzette Sutherland, Director of Female Urology at the University of Washington, and Dr. Anne Cameron, Professor of Urology at the University of Michigan, share their insights on the prevention and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs).

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Episode #38


In this episode of BackTable Urology, Dr Jose Silva and Dr. Esther Han discuss diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis in women.

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Episode #12


We talk with Dr. Yahir Santiago-Lastra, director of the Women's Pelvic Medicine Center at UC San Diego Health about the management of cystitis and pelvic pain syndromes. She shares her insights on genitourinary syndrome of menopause, pain evaulation and treatment, and procedural options including botox and sacral neuromodulation.

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Cystitis Treatment

Antibiotic therapy is used to treat acute cystitis. The most common antimicrobial agent used for treatment is Nitrofurantoin, as it does not promote resistance of yeast overgrowth. Other common antibiotics used are Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) and Fosfomycin. Multidrug resistant organisms pose a challenge for the treatment of acute cystitis, and the selection of treatments should be individualized to the patient’s risk for infection. Patients at risk for multidrug resistant organisms should undergo a urine culture and sensitivity testing before a regimen is developed. A single dose of an IV parenteral agent can be used to start patients on treatment in the emergency room.


[1] Li, R., & Leslie, S. W. (2021, August 12). Cystitis. StatPearls [Internet]. Retrieved October 19, 2021, from

Disclaimer: The Materials available on are for informational and educational purposes only and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosing and treating patients. The opinions expressed by participants of the BackTable Podcast belong solely to the participants, and do not necessarily reflect the views of BackTable.



Recurrent UTIs: Controlling Those Nasty Little Bladder Infections with Dr. Anne Cameron on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Breaking Down Interstitial Cystitis with Dr. Esther Han on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Management of Cystitis & Pelvic Pain Syndrome with Dr. Yahir Santiago-Lastra and Dr. Jose Silva on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Perfecting Rectal Spacer Placement for Optimal Care with Dr. Neil Taunk on the BackTable Urology Podcast)



Dr. Anne Cameron on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Anne Cameron

Dr. Esther Han on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Esther Han

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