BackTable / Urology / Topic / Condition

Kidney Stones

Kidney stone disease, or nephrolithiasis, is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Crystal concretions formed within the kidneys are called kidney stones. Stone may also form in the ureter or urinary bladder, and the location of stone formation influences the symptoms that follow. These stones may be made up of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, uric acid, or cystine. Calcium oxalate stones formed at Randall’s plaque are the most common. Kidney stones increase risk of end-stage renal failure and developing chronic kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Some symptoms of kidney stones include renal colic, flank pain, urinary tract infections, blood urine, and dilation of the kidney.

Kidney Stones Condition Overview

Learn more on the BackTable Urology Podcast

BackTable is a knowledge resource for physicians by physicians. Get practical advice on Kidney Stones and how to build your practice by listening to the BackTable Urology Podcast, reading exclusing BackTable Articles, and following the work of our Contributors.

Ep 9 Tips & Tricks for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with Dr. Margaret Pearle and Dr. Aditya Bagrodia
00:00 / 01:04

Earn CME

Reflect on how this Podcast applies to your day-to-day and earn AMA PRA Category 1 CMEs.
Follow the button below to get started with CMEfy.

BackTable CMEfy button

Stay Up To Date



Sign Up:

Kidney Stones Diagnosis

Kidney stones are confirmed with laboratory testing and imaging studies. Stone analysis is especially important in diagnosing patients with cystine, uric acid, infection-induced, drug-induced, and ammonium urate kidney stones. Laboratory tests include blood profiles and a urine metabolic evaluation while imaging studies are usually performed with CT. Systemic and environmental influences should be identified during kidney stone diagnosis so they can be addressed during treatment, if possible. Systemic influences include intestinal disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, recurrent urinary tract infection, and medullary sponge kidney.

Kidney Stones Podcasts

Listen to leading physicians discuss kidney stones on the BackTable Urology Podcast. Get tips, tricks, and expert guidance from your peers and level up your practice.

Episode #edición-esp-02

BackTable Podcast play icon

Dr. Jose Silva y Dr. Fernando Cabrera, urologista de Cleveland Clinic en Florida, hablan sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de cálculos renales y ureterales. Los doctores discuten cuáles pacientes necesitan la intervención, los métodos quirúrgicos para romper los cálculos, y consejos sobre cada tipo de terapia.

BackTable CMEfy button

Episode #13

BackTable Podcast play icon

UT Southwestern endourologist Dr. Jodi Antonelli shares her tips and tricks for difficult ureteroscopy cases. Listen to learn about pre-op and post-op medication, dealing with large prostates and narrow ureters, variations in baskets, access sheaths, and ureteroscopes, dusting vs. basket retrieval, and performing ureteroscopies on pregnant women.

BackTable CMEfy button

Episode #9

BackTable Podcast play icon

Dr. Margaret Pearle, the Vice Chair of Urology at UT Southwestern Medical Center, joins us to discuss percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Dr. Pearle shares advice on pre-operative urine culture analysis, CT scans, percutaneous access, and placing a ureteral stent vs. a nephrostomy tube

BackTable CMEfy button

Kidney Stones Treatment

The most common kidney stone treatments are shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Treatment selection is based on the location and complexity of the kidney stones. Options to prevent a recurrence of nephrolithiasis are available and should address the cause of stone formation in order to be effective. Adjusting diet and increasing fluid intake are essential. While there is no drug that cures and prevents recurrent kidney stones, thiazide diuretic, alkali, or allopurinol treatments can be used to reduce recurrence.

Kidney Stones Articles

Read our exclusive BackTable Urology Articles for quick insights on kidney stones, provided by physicians for physicians.

nephrostomy tube placement

Certain PCNL patients will require a nephrostomy tube, a catheter that drains urine from the kidney to an external bag.

pcnl surgery kidney stone

PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) procedure is a minimally invasive surgery alternative to open kidney stone surgery. A PCNL procedure is a surgical technique that is used to remove large or complex kidney stones. Learn more!


[1] Alelign, T., & Petros, B. (2018, February 4). Kidney Stone Disease: An update on current concepts. Advances in Urology. Retrieved December 7, 2021, from
[2] Miller, N. L., & Lingeman, J. E. (2007, March 3). Management of Kidney Stones. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). Retrieved December 7, 2021, from
[3] Sakhaee, K., Maalouf, N. M., & Sinnott, B. (2012, March 30). Clinical review. Kidney stones 2012: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Retrieved December 7, 2021, from

Disclaimer: The Materials available on are for informational and educational purposes only and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosing and treating patients. The opinions expressed by participants of the BackTable Podcast belong solely to the participants, and do not necessarily reflect the views of BackTable.

Earn CME When You Listen to BackTable CMEfy


Sugerencias y Mañas a la Hora de Ureteroscopia para Calculo Renal con Dr. Fernando Cabrera on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Tips & Tricks for Difficult Ureteroscopy with Dr. Jodi Antonelli and Dr. Aditya Bagrodia on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Tips & Tricks for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with Dr. Margaret Pearle and Dr. Aditya Bagrodia on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Minimally Invasive Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer with Dr. Amit Patel and Dr. Ranko Miocinovic on the BackTable Urology Podcast)


nephrostomy tube placement

PCNL Nephrostomy Tube Insertion & Management

pcnl surgery kidney stone

PCNL Procedure Techniques


Dr. Jodi Antonelli on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Jodi Antonelli

Dr. Fernando Cabrera on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Fernando Cabrera

Dr. Margaret Pearle on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Margaret Pearle

Related Topics