BackTable / Urology / Topic / Condition

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world and is the most common malignant neoplasm in the urinary system. This condition occurs in older individuals, with the majority of patients being older than 65 years of age. Around 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinoma, and most other cases are squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, which is associated with chronic bladder irritation. Only 1% of bladder cancers are primary adenocarcinoma, and these cases generally occur in patients with a history of bladder exstrophy or uracheal adenocarcinoma. Chemical carcinogenesis is associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer, with cigarette smoke being one of the most strongly associated factors. Other risk factors include chronic cystitis, Human Papillomavirus infection, upper urinary tract cancer, and bladder augmentation.

Bladder Cancer Condition Overview

Learn more on the BackTable Urology Podcast

BackTable is a knowledge resource for physicians by physicians. Get practical advice on Bladder Cancer and how to build your practice by listening to the BackTable Urology Podcast, reading exclusing BackTable Articles, and following the work of our Contributors.

Ep 46 Techniques & Maneuvers for Optimal TURBT with Dr. Sam Chang
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Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

Symptoms of bladder cancer include gross or microscopic hematuria, urinary frequency, urgency dysuria, and ureteral obstruction. Diagnosis of bladder cancer may be delayed due to the number of shared symptoms with other disorders, such as urinary tract infection, cystitis, and prostatitis. This often leads to diagnosis at an advanced stage of the disease. A full urologic evaluation should be done for patients experiencing hematuria. This involves a complete history and physical exam, and in some cases a urine sample, cystoscopy, or intravenous pyelography. After a diagnosis, additional studies, including liver function test, chest x-rays, and blood count should be performed. CT scans for the bladder are helpful in examining the bladder wall thickening and lymph node involvement.

Bladder Cancer Podcasts

Listen to leading physicians discuss bladder cancer on the BackTable Urology Podcast. Get tips, tricks, and expert guidance from your peers and level up your practice.

Episode #57

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In this episode of BackTable Urology, Dr. Aditya Bagrodia speaks with urologist Dr. Anne Schuckman from the University of Southern California about advantages and advice for blue light cystoscopy, a procedure performed to identify bladder tumors during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).

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Episode #54

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In this episode of BackTable Urology, Dr. Aditya Bagrodia discusses methods and benefits of smoking cessation in urologic oncology patients with Dr. Christian Fankhauser from Luzerner Kantonsspital and Dr. Richard Matulewicz from Memorial Sloan Kettering.

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Episode #46

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In this episode of BackTable Urology, Dr. Aditya Bagrodia interviews Dr. Sam Chang, chief of urologic oncology at Vanderbilt University, about surgical tips and tricks for intermediate and high risk bladder cancer.

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Episode #25

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We talk with Dr. Siamak Daneshmand, Director of Urologic Oncology at USC Institute Of Urology, about the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Listen to the full episode to learn tips for successful transurethral resections of bladder tumor (TURBT) and cystectomies, using imaging to stage bladder cancers, deciding between a cystectomy vs. trimodality therapy (TMT), and comparisons between neobladder procedures and urinary diversions.

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Episode #18

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We finish our discussion with Dr. Angie Smith from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill about peri-operative optimization of radical cystectomies. She discusses pre-operative incentive spirometry, opioid and NSAID regimens, post-operative drains and stents, and the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration.

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Episode #17

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We talk with Dr. Angie Smith about perioperative measures to optimize radical cystectomies.

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Episode #2

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Dr. Jose Silva talks with Urologist Dr. Aditya Bagrodia from UT Southwestern Medical Center about the medical and surgical management of bladder cancer.

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Bladder Cancer Treatment

The preferred initial therapy for patients with metastatic bladder cancer is a cisplatin based combination chemotherapy. Candidates for this therapy must be evaluated for their ability to tolerate this chemotherapy. Renal function, peripheral neuropathy, hearing abilities, organ function, and comorbidities should be assessed. Patients who are not eligible for cisplatin based combination chemotherapy may be treated with carboplatin based regimens, non-platinum regimens, systemic immunotherapy, or single agent chemotherapy. Patients that have had a partial response to systemic therapies would be good candidates for transurethral resections of metastases or in severe cases, radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Maintenance therapies, such as avelumab, are used in patients with advanced bladder cancer who did not respond to platinum based chemotherapy. Immunotherapies are used as a second line of treatment, and later line therapies are targeted at tumor alterations and patient preferences.

Bladder Cancer Articles

Read our exclusive BackTable Urology Articles for quick insights on bladder cancer, provided by physicians for physicians.

Blue light cystoscopy screening for bladder cancer recurrence

Blue light cystoscopy is useful in managing bladder cancer, both for complete tumor resection in the OR and as routine surveillance office cystoscopy to monitor bladder cancer recurrence.

References

[1] Metts, M C, et al. “Bladder Cancer: A Review of Diagnosis and Management.” Journal of the National Medical Association, National Medical Association, June 2000, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640522/

Disclaimer: The Materials available on https://www.BackTable.com are for informational and educational purposes only and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosing and treating patients. The opinions expressed by participants of the BackTable Podcast belong solely to the participants, and do not necessarily reflect the views of BackTable.

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Podcasts

Blue Light Cystoscopy: Who, When, and How? with Dr. Anne Schuckman on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Smoking Cessation for the Urologist with Dr. Christian Fankhauser and Dr. Richard Matulewicz on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Techniques & Maneuvers for Optimal TURBT with Dr. Sam Chang on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Management of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer with Dr. Siamak Daneshmand on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Perioperative Optimization for Radical Cystectomy Patients (Part 2) with Dr. Angie Smith on the BackTable Urology Podcast)
Breaking Down Upper Tract Malignancy with Dr. Katie Murray on the BackTable Urology Podcast)

Articles

Blue light cystoscopy screening for bladder cancer recurrence

Blue Light Cystoscopy in Bladder Cancer

Contributors

Dr. Aditya Bagrodia on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Aditya Bagrodia

Dr. Sam Chang on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Sam Chang

Dr. Siamak Daneshmand on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Siamak Daneshmand

Dr. Christian Fankhauser on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Christian Fankhauser

Dr. Richard Matulewicz on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Richard Matulewicz

Dr. Anne Schuckman on the BackTable Urology Podcast

Dr. Anne Schuckman

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